January 26, 2021

Role of Nutrition and Energy from Food Macro Groups

Role of Nutrition and Energy from Food Macro Groups



Contains most Vitamins particulary those water soluble. 

  • A (Beta Carotine) – Vision, Embyonic, Immune Function
  • B complex
  • Thiamin, (metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids)
  • Riboflavin, (energy metabolism – kreb cycle)
  • Niacin, (energy metabolism co enzymes – kreb cycle NAD and NADP)
  • Pantothenic Acid, (part energy metabolism co enzymes – kreb cycle COA)
  • Biotin,
  • Folic Acid, (Maternal synthesis & maintenance of new cells. DNA)
  • B12 (DNA and RNA regulation)
  • and C, (Collagen and vital compound synthesis, antioxidant, iron absorption)


Source of Minerals and Fibre

    • Primary Energy Source – particularly needed for medium to high intensity exercise
    • There are many types and names of Sugar, including Monosaccharides , Disaccharide,

Sucrose, Lactose, Glucose, all of which the body will break down to Monosaccharides

    • Main storage unit in the body is a Glycogen, a multibranched polysaccharide.
    • Stored in Liver and Muscle but only in small amounts. Mostly stored in the blood stream
    • Broken down by Insulin
    • Easily destroyed by cooking.
    • Glycemic Index and Glycemic Loading is the rate of release of energy from foods and its volume or amount



  • Contain some Vitamins especially Essential Fatty Acids.

 Vitamin A, (vision) D (calcium and phosphorous absorption and balance), E (antioxidant) and K (blood clotting).

  •  Stored in Liver.
  • Contains Double Kilojoules compared to Carbohydrates and Proteins
  • Secondary Energy Source – particularly low to moderate and longer / continuous exercise
  • Essential to many body functions, Cell membrane structure, Nerve cell transmissions, Protection of internal organs, Insulation to retain body heat



  • Comprised of specific function Amino Acids.
  • 9 amino acids essential for life are obtained from food
  • Absorption facilitated by Calcium
  • Repairs Muscle after exercise
  • Regular servings needed in a 24 hour period
  • Optimal intake after exercise is 30grams within 1 hour, 20 grams after another 2 hours



Energy and Activity



  • Energy = Total amount of energy derived from Carbohydrates, Fats and Protein food sources.
  • Usually Measured in Kilojoules in Australia

(1 Calorie equals 4.184 kilojoules)

  • Average daily consumption for sedentary Adult is around 8,000kjs
  • Average daily consumption for active to very active Adult is around 10,000kjs to 12,000kjs *


* Be active on preferably all days every week.

  • Accumulate 150 to 300 minutes (2 ½ to 5 hours) of moderate intensity physical activity or 75 to 150 minutes (1 ¼ to 2 ½ hours) of vigorous intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both moderate and vigorous activities, each week.
  • At least two resistance sessions each week
  • One day stretching per week